September 1, 1996 - March 31, 2002


Table of Contents



























The countries of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and Peru share common geography and borders. The mountain chain of the Andes, forming the spine of South America, links these countries creating a common geology, ecology and economic heritage.

The mountains of the Andes form a geographic barrier to travel east and west. This barrier was uplifted by geologic forces which created the hostile world of the high Andes and Altiplano. Yet these same forces endowed this region with immeasurable mineral riches. Some of these mineral resources have already been discovered, but others are certainly yet to be uncovered. It was toward these yet-to-be-found ore deposits, the mineral wealth they contain and the sharing of a common purpose that could unite people and countries that this Project, The Multinational Andean Project (MAP), was directed.

Beginning in 1990, Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID) project (ATN/SF-3427-RE) (BID I) sought to increase the level of expertise of the National Geoscience Agencies of Bolivia, Perú and Chile. The three year project focused on professional training and resulted in a number of Taller de Trabajos, seminars and some technical papers. The positive results of this project spurred the countries to request additional funding from BID to continue the work. At this time, Argentina was invited to join as the fourth participant. With the financial aid of BID (through CIDAs Canada Desk) funds were made available to prepare a project proposal. The Geological Survey of Canada was contracted to assist the countries in. preparing this report entitled Geological Projects to Spur Economic and Social Development in the Border Regions Between Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and Peru. The report and project were unofficially referred to as the Borders Project and it was submitted to BID in February of 1995. BID declined to fund the project, but CIDA considered it closely aligned with its goals and objectives and discussions began on possible funding for the project.

The positive results of the original BID project and the potentially positive outcomes suggested in the Borders Project proposal, coupled with the strong Canadian presence in the mining sector of South America, resulted in CIDA agreeing to fund the Multinational Andean Project (MAP) in June, 1996. MAP commenced in September of that year, following an inception meeting held in Salvador Bahia, Brazil. The intended outcome of MAP was to strengthen and enhance the National Geoscience Agencies of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and Perú. This would position them to undertake more complex and demanding projects directed towards the needs of client groups shared by each country.

An important client group, made up of mainly exploration and mining companies (many of them Canadian), needed to be supplied with a new and updated geoscience information base in order to encourage exploration. New and enhanced data and updated information would supply the impetus for renewed exploration in remote and little-explored regions of the four participating countries, mainly in their border regions. This exploration activity and the possibility of bringing new mining development with attendant infusion into the economic base of some of the most impoverished parts of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and Perú, formed the economic basis of the project. The regions selected for study have little hope for other types of economic development besides the exploration impetus and possible mine development that could result from the work of the National Geoscience Agencies. In addition, the new geoscience information would assist in land use planning and general economic development.

Although nature provides a hostile biological environment in the Andes, the area is amply endowed with mineral resources. The large-scale earth-forces responsible for uplifting the mountains, also created volcanoes. These volcanoes, active over millions of years, created an environment where ore bearing fluids related to them and their underlying magma chambers created rich mineral deposits. Exposed by erosion, but complexly modified by continuing tectonic forces such as faulting, the roots of these volcanoes are exploration targets. However, before exploration can take place, basic geoscience information is required. MAP was based on the Canadian federal government model, coupled with industry feedback, for the need to provide sound basic regional geoscience knowledge and information to assist land-use planning and mineral exploration. This basic geoscience information allows companies to narrow regions of interest so as to facilitate more cost effective and successful exploration leading to mining activity in a shorter time frame. These basic geoscience investigations form part of the mandate of the National Geoscience Agencies of the four participating nations: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and Perú. This Project helped them fulfill their mandate to provide this information with the outcome of attracting renewed exploration interest.

In addition to supplying much needed basic geoscience data to client groups within each country, this information was exchanged between the National Geoscience Agencies to their mutual benefit. Joint investigations with common goals in regions of similar geology, and from differing positions of national strength and expertise, built stronger agencies within each country and stronger ties between the countries. This "Horizontal Integration" brought the expertise that presently resided within the member countries to the forefront, benefitting all of the participating nations. National expertise was used in conjunction with National and International experts who provided scientific council, specialized expertise and facilitated increased communications between the countries.


Long Term

Economic and social development of depressed regions along the borders of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and Perú, mainly through mine and infrastructure development. Baseline geoscience data for general development, land-use planning, environmental assessment and impact studies.

Medium Term

Strengthening of the National Geoscience Agencies and regional integration through training of personnel and upgrading of analytical facilities.
Improvement of the geoscience data base for under-explored regions of the four countries mainly adjacent to the border areas.

Compatible international geoscience information through the use of a common technical language and a more integrated approach to data collection, interpretation and synthesis.Focused, cost-effective exploration with higher probability of success.

Short Term

Technology transfer between countries (Horizontal Integration).Better rapport and cooperation between geologists in each country and less competitive work.
Information transfer between countries (Horizontal Integration).

Training of national geologists through multinational interaction (Horizontal Integration).

Enhance relationships with Private Sector (mineral exploration and mining companies).

Attraction of exploration interest as a result of/in response to new geological information for large areas and commitment to exploration in the study areas.

Each nation pursued geoscience objectives that were consistent with and pertinent to its country and institutional mandate, and its level of expertise and funding ability, but which satisfied the short, medium and long term goals of the Project. As far as possible, regions chosen by each country were along the borders of the respective nations to maximize the amount of integration and interaction between the countries (Figure 1). Joint products, seminars, conferences, workshops, field trips, technical courses (short courses) and exchange of personnel facilitated the transfer of technology between countries and the integration and coordination of the Program.

To maximize the positive benefits of working toward common goals and objectives the individual activities in each country were integrated as far as possible.

The following types of integrative work were undertaken:



Tables 1 and 2 provide detailed project results for each area where there were expected outputs. Additional details can be found in the Quarterly Reports prepared for the Project. A set of these reports (see section 10, Bibliography) is available in the Mary Akehurst Geoscience Library, Geological Survey of Canada, Pacific Division, Vancouver Office, #1500 - 101 Robson Street, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6B 5J3.


Expected Output from PAD/LFA

Actual – Project Cumulative Output

1.  Scientific Data & analysis of rock and mineral samples & some related training.


  • 2050 geochemical rocks samples for regional geochemical coverage
  • 147 whole rock trace element analysis for petrographic studies
  • 53 radiometric dates


  • 1281 geochemical rocks samples for regional geochemical coverage
  • 56 radiometric dates
  • 265 whole rock trace element analysis for petrographic studies


  • 130 radiometric dates
  • 69 whole rock trace element analysis for petrographic studies
  • Training Sergio Gelcich in Dating


  • 99 radiometric dates
  • 305 whole rock trace element analysis for petrographic studies
  • 7 Conodont análisis
  • 7 Radiolarian analysis

2. Seminars, workshops, field conferences & short courses given by Canadian Experts in areas to be agreed upon in consultation with Canada & National Geoscience Agencies


  • Hector Martinez - Training in remote satellite imagery in Vancouver (RGI)
  • Gabriel Asato - Geochemical Information manipulation and display (Harris)
  • Jorge Chernicoff - Airborne Geophysics (Ford)
  • Workshop: Geophysical modeling (Lowe)
  • Workshop: Airborne geophysics (Teskey)
  • Workshop: Representation of Regional Geochemical information (Friske)
  • Field Course:  Mineral deposits (Panteleyev)
  • Field mapping: Volcanology and regional studies (Hickson and Edwards)
  • Field mapping: Structure and regional studies (Evenchick)
  • Field studies:  Mineral deposit geology (Panteleyev)
  • Field trip and conference: Terrane Paths 1999 (British Columbia, Canada)



  • Short Course: Mineral Deposits Classification, Genetic Modeling and Metallogeny  (Panteleyev)
  • Short Course: PIMA (Petrascience)
  • Short Course: Fluid inclusions (Fluid Inc.)
  • Workshop: GlobeSar II Radarsat Imagery
  • Workshop: Fieldwork practices and computer systems (Woodsworth)
  • Workshop: Mapping and Reporting for Industry (Soregaroli)
  • Field mapping: volcanology and regional studies (Metcalfe)



  • Sergio Gelcich-Training in radiometric Ar 40/39 dating (Ottawa, Villeneuve)
  • Paula Cornejo - Radiometric dating (Ottawa, Villeneuve)
  • Sergio Iriarte - Hydrogeology (Waterloo, Aravena and Rudolph)
  • Carlos Perez de Arce- Training in Geochronology Lab in Ottawa
  • Short Course: PIMA (Petrascience)
  • Short Course: Mineral Deposits Classification & Metallogeny (Panteleyev)
  • Short Course: Radiometric dating (Villeneuve)
  • Short course: Magix software
  • Workshop:  Geophysical modeling (Lowe)
  • Workshop: GlobeSar II Radarsat Imagery
  • Field studies: Hydrogeology (Aravena and Rudolph)
  • Field course: Fission track dating (Currie)



  • Assessment: Dr. Art Soregaroli & Dr. Andrew Panteleyev. Survey’s work plans
  • Short Course: Mineral Deposits and Metallogeny (Panteleyev)
  • Short Course: Mineral Deposits Classification, Genetic Modeling and Metallogeny (Panteleyev)
  • Short Course: PIMA (Petrascience)
  • Short Course: Sampling for Radiometric Dating (Gardeweg)
  • Short Course: Mapping in Volcanic Terrains, Products and Processes (Russell and Hickson)
  • Short Course: Fluid inclusions (Fluid Inc.)
  • Field Course:  Mapping in Volcanic Terrains (Hickson)
  • Field mapping: Paleozoic rock sequences (Gordey)



  • Workshop:Fieldlog & Fieldworker (Broderick and Krauth)
  • Field course: Mineral deposits I (Panteleyev and Sangster)
  • Field course: Mineral deposits II (Vivallo, Zappettini, Panteleyev and Sangster)
  • Field Course: Volcanology I (Canada, Hickson)
  • Field Course: Volcanology II (Chile, Gardeweg and Hickson)
  • Workshop on digital data practices used by GSC.
  • Cartographic standards procedures (Cocking, Zappettini)
  • Introduction to Fieldlog for Executive Council in Ottawa.

3. Maps of the Border Regions produced.

4,000 Metallogenic Maps and accompanying bulletin printed and 2500 copies of the 2 volume MAP GeoData CD-ROM  pressed.  These publications represent the most complete and up-to-date geoscience dataset for the region of the central Andes and are for sale in all five countries and on the internet.

4. Attendance at conferences to highlight progress of project.

  • XXXIX Geological Congress of Brazil in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil (September 1996).
  • Prospectors & Developers Association of Canada (PDAC) in Toronto, Canada (March 1997).
  • Mining Engineering Conference, Arequipa (September, 1997)
  • Cordilleran Exploration Roundup meeting in Vancouver, Canada (January 1998).
  • X Latin American Geological Congress in Buenos Aires, Argentina (November 1998).
  • Prospectors & Developers Association of Canada (PDAC) in Toronto, Canada (March 1999).
  • Bolivian Geological Congress, Santa Cruz, Bolivia (September, 1999)
  • Cordilleran Exploration Roundup meeting in Vancouver, Canada (January 2000).
  • Chilean Geological Congress in Puerto Varas, Chile (August 2000). Special, one day MAP symposium to highlight work of the project.  Also resulted in publication of the presentations as part of the conference proceedings.
  • International Geological Congress (IGC), Rio de Janeiro, (August 2000)
  • Cordilleran Exploration Roundup meeting in Vancouver, Canada (January 2001).
  • Prospectors & Developers Association of Canada (PDAC) in Toronto, Canada (March 2001).
  • XI Latin American Geology Congress, MAP Products unveiling in Montevideo, Uruguay (November 2001). Special, one day MAP symposium to highlight work of the project and release of the Metallogenic map and bulletin.
  • Prospectors & Developers Association of Canada (PDAC), MAP products presentation in Toronto, Canada (March 2001). Special unveiling of the GeoData CD-ROM.

5. Compatible maps & reports being produced.

Executive Council meetings decided that all publications would be reviewed before being published.  A Technical Standards committee was implemented with members from all five countries.  This group met to discuss technical guidelines for publications.  They also exchanged technical specifications in use at that time in each country and then set guidelines.  These guidelines followed for all publications through the newly established series Publicación Geológica Multinacional - Multinational Geological Publications established under the project.  Chile is the host institution for this series.  Additionally, MAPdb (the Project database) created a standardized format for data capture and entry.

6. Regular technical exchanges between National Geoscience Agencies

Chileans and Argentineans continued a strong working relationship.  Other bilateral work between Chile and Peru and Peru and Bolivia and Bolivia and Argentina.  Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs) signed between Canada and Argentina, Chile and Peru.  Verifiable indicators (Annex A) provide additional details.

7. Increased Private sector interest.

Private Sector interest indicated in “Annex B” of report #3 and by response to Aeromagnetic survey in Argentina set for 1997/98.  Significant attendance by private sector companies at MAP presentations at conferences.  Strong positive reaction to the final products released by the Project (Metallogenic map and Bulletin and CD-ROM (including a digital version of the map and Project database MAPdb).

8. High quality analytical data.

Three ISO 9000 certifiable geochemical rock standards created and delivered to National laboratories.  These are the first South American geochemical Standards produced.  Limited upgrading of laboratories with provision of specific equipment (ring mills, sieves, etc.).  Fluid inclusion laboratories implemented in Chile and Peru.  Some technical assistance to Chile in setting up Ar-Ar dating facility funded by the Chilean government.

9. Trained personnel using updated standards to produce maps.

All countries agreed to standards for Multinational Geological Publications Series products and to the data formats of MAPdb.

Argentina – satellite imaging software donated by Canada and used by Martinez (trained in Canada).

Bolivia – significant staff turn over during the life of the project precluded institutional adoption of some aspects of the Project

Chile – Gelcich using Ar/Ar dating techniques learned in Canada on equipment purchased by Chile.  Iriarte incorporating Canadian hydrogeologic concepts into new maps.

Perú – GIS software being implemented to streamline map production.         

10. Increased analytical capacity demonstrated in better quality products.

See 3, 5, and 8












/GE Women in Development / Gender Equity. (B2)

Identification of areas of adequacy & of areas in need of improvement (i.e. areas where women are under-represented).

The following identified:

Argentina- relatively low participation of women especially at higher management levels.  Some women professionals.

Bolivia- relatively low participation of women especially at higher levels.

Chile- participation of women in all levels of institute (head of project from 1996 - 2001).

Perú- relatively low participation of women at higher levels - some participation in medium positions (i.e. recent graduates).

Canadá- Project manager is a woman and several technical experts were also women. Women to men ratio is higher than national average.

Increased participation of women in future scientific work within their respective institutes

Argentina- Increasing.

Bolivia- Increased acceptance of young women professionals.  Two entered the project in the final year and were retained by the institution after the project ended.

Chile- In dealings with Chile project administrator spends +/-50% of time dealing with women at all levels.

Perú- Paleontologist working with Canadians is a woman and has increased participation the project.  Short courses taught by Canadian women were well attended and encouraged women to come forward within the institution.

Canadá- Unchanged, women at all levels within the project. 

Increased participation of women in “decision making levels” in all institutes.



Argentina- None yet


Bolivia- None yet


Chile- Already relatively advanced in this category


Perú- None yet


Canadá- Already advanced in this category

Environmental & Natural resources management capacity in key institutions increased. (F3)

Increased awareness of environmental & resource issues related to project area.  Production of metallogenic maps to help mineral assessment and land-use planning

Argentina- Regional geochemical samples - Satellite analysis of liniments and land forms.

Bolivia- Regional geochemical samples.

Chile- Hydrogeology chosen as an area of work under the project due to environmental concerns.

Perú- Hg contamination identified as a relevant issue.

Multinational- Metallogenic map and Database for land-use planning

Investigation into possible solutions to environmental hazards and resource management issues.

Argentina- strengthening of environmental group.

Bolivia- None yet

Chile- Decision to establish a hydrology group within the institution.

Perú- strengthening of environmental group

Increased awareness leading to action being taken by countries to protect environment and effectively manage natural resources

Countries sought the support of CIDA to work on a new project focused on natural hazards and land-use planning as a result of the increased awareness brought about under MAP.  MAP was used as an example of a cooperative program at CAMMA and the Association of Iberoamerican Geoscience Surveys meetings.

Capacity of Institutions in the region to develop, plan and execute policies and programs that facilitate regional integration. (H1)

Discussion of present practices of each institute.  Integrated multi-country project planning.

Executive Council meetings discussed standards of publications.  Decisions on timing of activities, including field activities, and types of joint products also made.

Increased awareness of institutional standards & practices of all parties involved in project.

Participants decided to analyze present standards for publications in the respective countries and comeup with a set of standards for publications produced under the project.  Joint planning of activities resulted in increased bilateral activity

Collaboration of institutes on scientific work in common areas of interest.

Regional and inter institutional tensions reduced.

Private sector capacity particularly micro, small, and medium-sized businesses strengthened. (E1)

New maps and products used by private sector for mineral exploration.

New publications (metallogenic map and databases) and data such as the regional airborne geophysical surveys have increased exploration activity in some areas.

Expected exploration efforts are more cost effective.


Some staff trained under the project have left the government institution for positions in the private sector

More focused exploration activity expected.

Puna Austral Airborne geophysical survey resulted in increased exploration and staking.


The results of the project were significant. Tables 1 and 2 above list some of the specific outputs and outcomes, but fails to convey the overall sense of pride and accomplishment all participants felt at the end of the Project. Friendships developed and solid working relationship resulted between the participants that steadily increased over the life of the project. In the beginning, the countries had very separate agendas and there were clear tensions between some of the participants. Bilateral agreements, except in the case of Argentina and Chile who had been working together for several years, seemed unlikely. The countries could only agree to create a mineral deposit map (a technically very simple and straight forward product) as a joint project and Perú chose a project area away from the border and in geological terrain different from that of the other participants. Engagement of all participants at the beginning was difficult. However, the impact of two Executive Council meetings a year and the steady forward progress of the Project began to have a significant impact.

The bi-yearly Executive Council meetings brought together the National Directors and Project Leaders and/or coordinators from each country. The National Directors began to use the meetings as an opportunity to discuss issue of concern for their institutions and governments outside the Project. Likewise, the Project Leaders and National Coordinators used the opportunity to exchange information with their colleagues. A friendly rivalry between the countries resulted in improved response to calls for information from the GSC management team and steadily increasing quality of presentations. After the first two years of Project -activity, the level of trust increased significantly.

As the level of trust increased between the countries there was an increased desire to do more bilateral work and to increase the complexity and commitment to the multicountry product envisioned for release at the end of the Project. From the humble beginnings as a mineral deposit map, the map grew into a new metallogenic and regional geological synthesis at 1:1,000,000 scale using the collective wisdom of the participants and the new data collected under the project (in particular new age dates, mapping and geochemistry). Under the leadership of Dr. Eduardo Zappettini (SEGEMAR, Argentina) a working group was assembled with representatives from each country and work began on the map.

A geological synthesis is a complex and difficult undertaking, particularly across national boundaries. National boundaries (and in fact any map boundary) tend to be areas where the geology looksvery different from one side to the other due to differing expertise, background and training of the geologist who mapped the region and the access they had to analytical data such as age dates, geochemistry, petrology or paleontology. However, portrayal of the geology in a systematic and consistent manner across the entire region is crucial for understanding the underlying geological architecture. This systematic representation is indeed critical to interpretation of the geology in terms of metallogeny (the possibility that rocks of a similar age and type contain mineral resources). It is through well done synthesis that new geological insights can be gained. These new insights may provide companies with new exploration targets and provide the impetus for an exploration program in a previously under explored area. This is especially important for areas that are poorly understood and as such the products may be of particular benefit to Bolivia and Argentina. The metallogenic map covers known metalliferous areas in Chile and Perú – it will assist exploration companies in tracing this prospective geology across the borders.

The metallogenic map was accompanied by a 222 page bulletin explaining the basic geology of the region, including the important formations and stratigraphic information, and the mineral deposits noted on the map. This effort was lead by Dr. Moyra Gardeweg (SERNAGEOMIN, Chile). Additionally, in this increasingly digital world, the map was digitally produced in a fully GIS format that allows the user to link the text material, data tables and supporting information, prepare custom maps and view the data in an interactive manner. Airborne geophysics is also included as well as a LandSat mosaic. This information is presented as part of a 2 volume CD-ROM (MAP GeoData CD-ROM) that also contains a custom database (MAPdb) containing all the data collected in the project as well as additional compilation data provided by some of the countries. This database was created to meet the needs of the participants and provide a standard method of data capture and entry. There is also a photo database where several hundred project photos can be viewed. This set of products is the most complete data set available for the region and is a tribute to the hard work and dedication of the country participants. The successful completion of all three products is a source of immense pride among the participants as these products represent the most up-to-date “state-of-the-art” synthesis of the geology of some of the world’s most important metal bearing regions.

It was noted early in the Project that one of the most important ingredients to obtain good laboratory analytical results is access to international quality standards, and this access was missing for most of the laboratories. These rocks standards are difficult to obtain and very costly ($100US for 60 gms of material) and significant quantities are needed. It was decided to develop several standards under the project. For this, over 100 kilograms of material was collected for three rock types; a basalt (Argentina), an andesite (Chile) and a rhyolite (Perú). These were carefully prepared and analyzed. The result is the first ever South American geochemical rock standards prepared to ISO 9000 standards. The material was distributed to each of the countries for their continued use.

Cartographic and publication standards were a continuing topic of discussion. These discussions lead to a working group made up of representatives from each country. This working group exchanged current standards in effect in their institutions and began developing standards for use by all members for joint publications. A subset of these standards was agreed upon and used for the final products of the Project. In addition, a new publication series was established to facilitate the publication of high quality international work . This series, Publicación Geológica Multinacional - Multinational Geological Publication is hosted by SERNAGEOMIN (Chile). MAPdb also provides a standardized way of collecting, entering and exchanging data, critical to any multicountry or multi agency project.

During the life of the project verifiable indicators were collected annually to help obtain a picture of the developing impact of the project. These indicators are presented in Annex A by country and year. In addition to the final products they provide additional insight into the overall impact of the project. Annex B provides copies of some of the Project products as well as the bilingual newsletter. The bilingual monthly newsletter was a critical vehicle to develop and maintain communication between the Project participants. At any one time there were as many as 150 people involved in the project and over 250 during the lifetime of the project. The newsletter was sent to 300 people, many in industry and was made available on the web. Additionally, a webpage provided information on an ongoing basis.



As a geological investigation project the direct environmental impact of project activities was limited. In the BID project proposal report (January 31, 1995), Appendix D (Environmental Assessment Overview of the Multinational Andean Program – Geological Projects to Spur Economic and Social Development in the Border Regions Between Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, and Peru Program) provided a general overview of environmental issues including a description of the flora and fauna of the project areas. It was pointed out that the main environmental impact would come if and when mining activity occurred in the project region. Due to the time lapse between identification of a potentially economically feasible mineral deposit, to opening a mine, this project could have no impact on that process. The time frame from exploration to mining is from 10 to 20 years. Mining activities undertaken by companies working in the international arena falls under strict international rules that come into play when permitting and discussions with government begin.

During the Project participants were exposed to Canadian mining practices. During one Executive Council meeting in Canada, the Executive Council visited the Myra Falls Mine on Vancouver Island, Canada. This is an extremely environmentally sensitive mine as it operates within a Provincial Park and has had to modify mining operations to take into account other attributes of the area. The Company toured the Council through the operations and explained many of the things the company has done to address environmental issues. Additionally, through organizations such as CAMMA (the annual conference of mines ministries of the Americas – which receives some funding from CIDA) as MAP member countries are looking seriously mining related environmental issues.


Latin America has many highly qualified women geoscientists. Many of these women are employed by the National Geoscience Agencies or are in academia. The lifestyle of a field geologist or explorationist with a mineral exploration company can be a difficult one for women who wish to raise a family. The National Geoscience Agencies and academia provide more flexible work arrangements more conducive to family obligations. As a result, there are more women than average in the National Geoscience Agencies than in the private sector, however, only in Chile was there a women manager the Project Leader between 1996 and mid 2001. Towards the end of the project an increasing number of women were visible within the project, and many of these were bright young students anticipating ongoing employment. Table 2 provides additional specific insights into the status of women within the project.


The Project was managed by an Executive Council made up the National Director’s from each country and the Project leader and/or National Coordinator. Additionally, Canada was represented on the Council by the Project Manager and Project Administrator. The Council met bi-annually, usually once in Canada and once in South America. This structure and arrangement did not change during the life of the project.

The Council was chaired by one of the National Directors who was elected from among the four countries. This post was held by Bolivia but was given to the Argentinean representative in 1999 and he remained in the position until the end of the project. A Technical Advisor was also appointed by the Executive Council to be a non-voting member of the Council. This position was held by Chile for the life of the project. If a matter required voting, each country (with the exception of Canada) had one vote carried by the National Director (or their designate). This arrangement proved very satisfactory and virtually all decisions were made on a consensus basis.


MAP Executive Council Members 1996 – 2001

SEGEMAR (Argentina)


Lic. Roberto Page, Director

1996 - 2001

Lic. José Mendía, Project Leader                           

1996 - 2001

Dr. Eduardo Zappettini, Project Coordinator        

1996 - 2001





Ing. Marcelo Claure, Director                     

1997 - 2001

Ing. Franz Tavera, Director                        

1996 - 1997

Dr. Orlando Sanjinés, Project Leader               

1996 - 1998