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Project Proposal
Geological Maps
Metallogenic Maps

Personnel Organization


4.1 Overview of INGEMMENT to get acquainted with its specific moments contact https://elitewritings.com/college-research-paper.html and purchase college research papers which will have an explanation.

a) Guidelines by the Energy and Mines Ministry, of March 1993., established activities to be carried by the Geological, Mining and Metallurgical Institute (INGEMMET);

- To advance rapidly, and complete by the year 2.000. the "Carta Geologica Nacional" (standard geological map of the country at 1:100.000 scale).

- To carry out inventories of mineral resources of the country.

- To undertake geological risk studies and provide geological services.

- To disseminate the information generated.

b) The overall mission of INGEMMET is to conduct studies and research activities in the geological fields; it is also involved in the evaluation, surveying and assessment of the mineral endowment of the country, as well as in the provision of a limited range of geological services. It is also rightly entitled to enter into agreements and/or contract with national, foreign and multilateral cooperation organizations to accomplish its goals.

c) INGEMMET is conducted by 6 meter Council, with a majority from private enterprise. Its organization, at present, follows the main functions established in a)., There is a Technical Director and after him 2 main divisions, the information Direction and Geology Direction.

The Geological Direction has 3 branches (1) Carta Geologica, (2) Mine prospection, (3) Geological risk studies., plus other facilities such as chemical petro-mineralographic and paleontology laboratories.

The administrative functions are under the Technical Director.

A sizable portion (93%) of INGEMMET's annual budget comes from its 30% participation of royalties paid by miners, which averages 1.5 US$/year per hectare for mining property (claims and concessions). The rest is obtained from the Republic's General Budget, through the Ministry of Energy and Mines.

d) INGEMMET is the trustee of a long-standing tradition, among its forerunners the following can be cited: "Junta Central de Ingenieros" established in 1852., which evolved into the "State Engineers Cops" in 1860, the "Estate Civil Engineers and Architects Corps" in 1872, which Section IV was the "mines and manufactures section., the Mining Engineers Corps of Peru" (1902).

"Geological Institute of Peru" (1940). "Institute for Mining Investigation and Promotion" (1950), the "Commission for the National Geological Chart" (1960).

Through the years INGEMMET has worked along and entered into technical co-operation agreements with the Geological Survey of the United States; BRGM and ORSTOM of France; BRG, GTZ and OIM of Germany; MMAJ and JICA of Japan; British Geological Survey of England, Instituto Geominero of Spain and other geological institutions and overseas universities.

4.2 Project Proposal

Preparation of geological maps and assessment of mineral resources in the Andes Cordillera and its Eastern Slopes, including the plateau close by the Republic of Bolivia.

4.2.1 Background

Besides setting a clear and fair legal framework and an efficient administration of mining rights (mining property), the most important factor for the promotion and development of the Peruvian mining industry will be the preparation and subsequent publication of updated (I) basic geological information and (ii) regional mineral resources assessment.

In this regard, the aims of INGEMMET are to:

Provide information on basic regional geology, economic geology, and other geology-related matters, to enable exploration efforts of companies to make sound investment decisions.

INGEMMET has recently concentrated its efforts on two main tasks:

- To survey the territory and evaluate mineral resources.
- To obtain, compile and publish geological information.

In addition to these two main tasks, a third activity is still carried., this applies to geological studies of areas exposed to geological risk and the assessment of geothermal resources.

The results of the Multinational BID-1 Project, showed the importance of using data from remote sensing sources such as Thematic Mapping Images (TM). and the compilation of information in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to sistemize general information (graphic and alphanumeric data bases), for the preparation and production of regional of specific geologic maps and information. By using TM and GIS, time and cost requirements for producing regional maps and specific information needed to develop natural resources, could be drastically reduced, in comparison with the slow and costly traditional methods. In addition, a multitude of data may be compiled, with detailed information required to outline attractive exploration areas, instead of identifying exploration targets through the time consuming process of a geochemical survey, carried on a drainage pattern map.

Lessons drawn by INGEMMET from its involvement in the BID-I Project showed that the use of remote sensing and data compilation, allowed both: (a) easier geological mapping of large areas, while (b) focusing attention on those areas where geological and structural conditions were more likely to host mineral deposits. The information gathered from the BID-I Project was important to define areas where to continue with detailed field work, and also from a methodological standpoint - for focusing on what to look for and how to proceed.

Peru's involvement in the present Project, the "Multinational Andean Program" shall build upon the short experience acquired through BID-1, and modern methods which from the time on INGEMMET has tried to install as standard procedures.

In spite of the continuous advance of TM remote sensing techniques, field work is indispensable to gather information to properly characterize rocks, determine structural patterns, obtain samples for chemical, chronological, paleontological and petrographical investigations, measures in key areas stratigraphic sections., and also to verify existence of economic minerals and validate mineral deposit models. As a rule of thumb, mining companies (save large multinational minerals and oil companies) neither have the expertise nor the resources to undertake geological work on such a large scope.

The Project proposal submitted by Peru (INGEMMET) to the Multinational Andean Program will combine modern procedures described plus the needed field work, to provide users (mainly mining and oil companies) with modern, state-of-the-art geoscience information, of regions, where little or none geological information is available now.

A significant feature of the present Multinational Andean Program, are its environmental and social impact components, to investigate environment impact of present and future mining operations in remote areas, inhabited by native communities. This project component is to be developed by means of special geochemical, social and economic studies, in order to verify and propose adequate guidelines for industry. In addition, in mining areas, past or present, metals and chemicals dispersion, as well as sampling the biological chain of its adsorption shall be verified. Social and economic impacts in small Andean communities would also be assessed. Geological Maps

As from the 1960s, geological mapping is made based on the official grid (composed of 501 sheets) of the "National Geographic Institute". Each map at a 1:100.000 scale has about a 53 Km side, (surface area of Peru is 1'280,000 Km2).

As of October 1996, 200 quadrangles had been studied and published; 28 other quadrangles should be published by December 1996, In this way, INGEMMET will have completely covered the coastal region and the Western Cordillera. INGEMMET has also already started geological mapping of the Eastern Cordillera and Amazon basin.

By 1996 end, the cumulated total of QUADRANGLES published will be 228, pending will remain 273 quadrangles, 53 out of which correspond to the Eastern Cordillera, and 220 to the Amazon basin.

Geological mapping of quadrangles on the eastern Cordillera and Amazon plateu, will be simultaneously accomplished recoursing to existing information, intense use of remote sensing images, aerophoto interpretation, compilation on GIS and extrapolation of the existing geological information to close by areas to produce preliminary maps of the area under study.

As a result, INGEMMET expects to produce advanced preliminary maps and information, with which to plan detailed specific field work. In this way field brigades, properly equipped should be in the position to cover 3 to 4 quadrangles per year.

Of the 273 outstanding quadrangles, 220 are in the Amazon basin, primarily covered by Quaternary sediments. For this reason, INGEMMET plans to map the rest of the country to 1:100.000 scale (100 to 120 quadrangles) and 1:200.000 scale (the rest, or 160 to 173).

A great deal of additional information of eastern Peru, would be made available from Peru-Petro the state oil company. Part of this information was recently processed and field checked enabling INGEMMET to publish 8 new quadrangles in the Madre de Dios region.

In former times it was widely believed that the geology of eastern Peru was the business of Peru-Petro. However, at present, the responsibility henceforth is of INGEMMET.

In general, the reason for the slow progress of the geological mapping of the country in the past has been an overall lack of human and material resources, compounded by the slow and high cost procedures for the preparation and publication of geological maps. New technologies (e.g. satellite images and GIS) offer a unique opportunity to solve this problem in a short time.

Underpinned by the processing of satellite images and geological model interpretation, but also by extrapolating available and accessible geological information and having access to better equipment and transportation means in the field - more geological maps (scale 1:100.000) could be produced. Needless to say, cost and time efficiencies would ensue. An additional step will be to edit and publish the maps of the eastern area, densely covered by tropical forests and Quaternary material, at scale 1:200.000. By proceeding this way, a fast and updated coverage of the rest of Peru would follow suit.

From the human resources point of view, INGEMMET has a small professional staff. They certainly cannot complete the remining sheets in 5 years working on their own. not even with the support of the newly introduced methods and technology. Therefore, responsibility for the completion of the Geological Map between 1997 and 2001 - as proposed now by the Minister of Energy and Mines and INGEMMET - must be shouldered by INGEMMETs personnel, private consultants and those local universities having a geology department.

Since 1995, 3 universities (San Marcos - Lima-, San Agustin - Arequipa - and San Antonio Abad - Cuzco - are working with INGEMMET under contract, having already finished 6 quadrangles, and advancing at present 6 more. Additionally, INGEMMET has contracted with outside consultants to check quadrangle maps and reports worked in the past, before their publication.

It is considered very important to have in place new equipment for image processing and GIS., also personnel training should not be neglected, in field work and computers techniques. Outside experts would act as advisors and instructors, co-operating with INGEMMET personnel in order to design working procedures, upgrade skills, and participate in field work activities.

Training and equipment to be received through the new Multinational Andean Project is of paramount importance for Peru, to keep up with the breathtaking pace of modern geoscience research and especially to promote private investment in its mineral and oil industries thus generating needed export earnings and tax revenues. Metallogenic Maps

Successful promotion of exploration activities in the project region will rely heavily on the timely updating and transmission of the knowledge on metallogeny and the discussion of thought provoking ideas and unconventional approaches. For the sake of this, good quality geologic maps are a must.

However, geological maps by themselves, being of good quality, do not enlight or easily convey ideas on the possibilities or origin of mineralization in areas of a quadrangle. For this reason, additional processing of geologic data, specifically geared towards planning for the exploration of mineral resources is required.

The use of GIS, mineral resources data bases and modern remote sensing techniques in selected areas will allow integration of data onto reliable updated regional thematic maps.

Recent advances made in geologic mapping and mineral prospecting, coupled with exploration-specific requirements call for the efficient management of this flow of information (thematic data)., this specific problem (geological and mineral information management) needs to be outlined and updated. This is another very important consideration set within the Multinational Andean Program.

4.2.2 Goals

The Project will have the following goals:

- To prepare and publish geologic maps, scale 1:100.000, and thematic maps related to mineral deposits (mineral resources related thematic maps), scale 1:200.000. This maps, as in the standard publications are presented in bulletins and reports (figure IV-6 and IV-7).

- Train a group of young geologists in the intricacies involved in the modern production of maps, as well as in the tools and techniques required for mineral resources assessment at a regional scale.

The aforementioned objectives shall be accomplished by means of:

- Collection of all available information, processing and interpretation of satellite images (LANDSAT TM and SPOT, when required). Field work will follow this initial stage to verify on-site the accuracy of remote sensing information.

- Field work for the preparation of geologic maps of the Project area.

-Within the areas covered by the Project, the genesis, type and dorm of mineralisation will be defined.

The resulting maps will be presented in standard bulletins and special reports, all of which will be prepared within the framework of the Project activities. Such products will in turn help mining companies in the planning and execution of exploration programs.

4.2.3 Schedule

The Project is expected to last four years, it will be executed pursuant of the above mentioned goals and be splitted into two sub-projects.

The first sub project would cover the Geological Chart and Regional Minerals Inventory (scale 1:100.000) for 14 quadrangles located in the south eastern region of Peru, close to the border with Bolivia.

The second sub project would comprise the preparation of two metallogenic regional maps. One in the southern part of the country, covering the Chile-Bolivia border departments of: Tacna, Moquegua, Arequipa and SW of Puno and their projection towards Chile and Bolivia. This area is related to the genesis of Pb-Zn-Cu-Mo-Ag-Au are deposits. The second map would cover the north-east area of the department of Puno, the target being the Peruvian metallogenic Au-Sn-W belt, which is considered a projection of the very important mineralization belt of Bolivia extending to Peru by means of the Real Mountain Chain of Bolivia, known as "Cordillera de Carabaya" or "Cordillera Oriental" in Peru.

a) Geological Mapping and Regional Inventory of minerals in sub project areas.

The sub project would cover roughly 37,600 Km2, it comprises the Sub Andean strip and the Amazon Plateau to the south east of Peru, specifically in the Inca and Aimara regions.

The main steps to be followed for the preparation of geologic maps include:

1. Collection of previous data, acquisition of satellite image tapes (LANDSAT TM and SPOT), detailed planning.

2. Registration and processing of satellite images (at the appropriate scale) in order to produce strong lithological contrasts that would make possible to highlight the main structural features, various lithologies and alteration patterns (densely vegetated and cloudly areas would be processed using radar images).

3. Integration and interpretation of data.

4. Planning of field work in the target areas, in coordination with mining companies.

5. On-site reviews of key areas; existing mines and mineralized areas will be visited in order to investigate origin of mineralization (deposit modeling) and regional anomalies. Samples for geochronology and lithogeochemistry tests will be taken.

6. Preparation of draft maps and reports.

7. Supervision of field and office work, when needed.

8. Preparation of the definitive version, writing and edition of reports.

9. Publication.

b) Metallogenic Regional Maps, between Peru-Bolivia and Peru-Chile Sub project.

The second sub project would consist of the metallogenic investigation of two frontier areas, in order to enable co-operation and the exchange of mining related geological information with Bolivia and Chile.

Areas covered by the sub project:

Peru - Bolivia approximately 36,000 Km2 Peruvian territory.

Peru - Chile approximately 60,000 Km2 Peruvian territory.

Product: 2 metallogenic maps (scale 1:200.000) will be produced. They will comprise: tectonic information, mineral occurrences (ore deposits), metallogenic characteristics of known mineral deposits and promising (target) areas for further exploration. The maps are to be accompanied by the corresponding reports.

Methodology: Emphasis on this sub project will be placed upon the definition of mineralization controls (structural, metamorphic, alteration and lithological): rock geochemistry and mineralogy, goechronology (K/Ar Rb/Sr, U/Pb). The research agenda will have to be adapted to the particular characteristics of each mineralized area or district, it will have to be co-ordinated with whereas progress in line with the Geologic Mapping Sub Project.

1. Collection of previous data, acquisition of satellite image tapes (LANDSTAT TM and SPOT), detailed planning.

2. Registration and processing of satellite images (at an appropriate scale) to produce sharp lithological contrast in order to emphasis the main structural characteristics, different rock lithologies and alteration patterns (outside densely vegetated zones).

3. Data integration and interpretation.

4. On-site confirmation of the information recorded, mineralized zones will be visited in order to define problems related to deposit modeling. Samples for geochronology and lithogeochemistry tests will also be taken.

5. Preparation of the draft maps and descriptions.

6. Field and office work supervision.

7. Preparation of the final material, writing and editing of reports.

8. Publication.

4.2.4 Personnel Organization

The Project will be an institutional activity for INGEMMET; in accordance, responsibility will be placed in a experienced geologist, designated as project manager, which will report progress and methodology for discussion with the Director of Regional Geology, including the departments of Regional Geology and Mining Geology, respectively.

The collection of information, field work, data processing, interpretation and production of maps, bulletins (monographs) and maps shall take place in Peru. This is certainly a key training component that will be carried out both, locally (at the satellite image processing laboratory of INGEMMET) and abroad, in cooperation with the participating countries.

Project planning, training and supervision of the project shall be entrusted to experts from a specialized agency who will participate in key aspects providing technical expertise, training to upgrade skills of INGEMMET's personnel. The said experts will work in close collaboration with INGEMMET to ensure the Project goals are met. A select group of Peruvian private consultants and university staff will work out their corresponding duties on an almost permanent basis.

- Within the areas covered by the Project, the genesis, type and form of mineralisation will be defined.

The resulting maps will be presented in standard bulletins and special reports, all of which will be prepared within the framework of the Project activities. Such products will in turn help mining companies in the planning and execution of exploration programs.

Publications (MAP Area)


Bol. N° 74-A : Cuadrángulo de Nuñoa (29-u)
Bol. N° 79-A : Cuadrángulo de Macusani (29-v)
Bol. N° 81-A: Cuadráng.: Puerto Luz (26-u), Colorado (26-v), Laberinto(26-x), Pto. Maldonado (26-y), Quincemil (27-u), Masuco (27-v), Astillero (27-x) y Tambopata (27-y)
Bol. N° 82-A : Cuadráng.: Sandia (27-x) y San Ignacio (29-z)
Bol. N° 84-A : Cuadrángulo de Limbani (29-x)


Bol. N° 90-A : Cuadráng.: Corani (28-u) y Ayapata (28-v)
Bol. N° 91-A: Cuadráng.: Esquena(28-x), Sta. Bárbara (28-y) y Azata (28-z)
Bol. N° 106-A: Cuadrángulo: Fitzcarrald (25-u) y Río L. Amigos (25-v) Escala: 1:100,000
Bol. N° 107-A: Cuadrángulo: Soledad (25-x) y Alegría (25-y)


Bol. N° 113-A: Cuadrángulo: Esperanza (23-u) y Río Lidia (24-u)
Bol. N° 123-A: Cuadrángulo: Río Acre (22-v), Iñapari (22-x), Qda. Mala (22-o), Iberia (23-x), San Lorenzo (23-y), Puerto Lidia (24-v), Río Manuripe (24-x), Mavila (24-y), Sta. María (24-z), Valencia (25-z), Palma Real (26-z) y Río Heath (27-z).